The second part of this book discusses the currencies of independent countries established in the Islamic world, both east and west, some of which were independent and autonomous, where the rulers of these states, such as the Aghlabid states, the Tahirids, the Saffarids, the Samanids, and the Buyids with their subsidiaries, the Ghaznavids, Kakuyids, and others, recognized the Abbasid Caliph’s authority over them from a political, religious, and economic standpoint, while some other countries were completely independent from the Abbasid Caliphate, either due to different religious and sectarian beliefs, such as the Idrisids in Morocco, the Alawites in Tabaristan, the Zaydi Imams in Yemen, and the Ibadis in Oman, as well as the Fatimid Caliphate in Morocco, followed by Egypt, Levant, and Yemen, or due to political differences, such as the Umayyad state and its sects in Andalusia and the Almohads in Morocco.